According to a June 19, 2015 CDC report, drug overdose deaths in the United States have more than doubled since 1999. During 2013, 43,982 drug overdose deaths (unintentional, intentional [suicide or homicide], or undetermined intent) were reported. Among these, 37% were associated with prescription opioid analgesics (e.g., oxycodone and hydrocodone) and 19% with heroin. Heroin and prescription opioids are major causes of drug overdose deaths. Naloxone is the standard medication used for reversal of the potentially fatal respiratory depression caused by opioid overdose.
For many years, community-based programs have offered opioid overdose prevention services to laypersons who might witness an overdose, including persons who use drugs, their families and friends, and service providers. Since 1996, an increasing number of programs provide laypersons with training and kits containing the opioid antagonist naloxone hydrochloride (naloxone) to reverse the potentially fatal respiratory depression caused by heroin and other opioids.
In July 2014, the Harm Reduction Coalition (HRC), a national advocacy and capacity-building organization, surveyed 140 managers of organizations in the United States known to provide naloxone kits to laypersons. Managers at 136 organizations completed the survey, reporting on the amount of naloxone distributed, overdose reversals by bystanders, and other program data for 644 sites that were providing naloxone kits to laypersons as of June 2014. These organizations included public health departments, pharmacies, health care facilities, substance use treatment facilities, and community-based organizations providing services to persons who use drugs, including current or former opioid (heroin or pharmaceutical) users, and other potential witnesses to overdoses. Law enforcement organizations, emergency medical services, and other professional first responders using naloxone were not included in this survey.
From 1996 through June 2014, surveyed organizations provided naloxone kits to 152,283 laypersons and received reports of 26,463 overdose reversals. Providing opioid overdose training and naloxone kits to laypersons who might witness an opioid overdose can help reduce opioid overdose mortality.
The survey included questions about the year the organization began operating; the numbers of sites or local programs providing naloxone kits; the number of persons trained in overdose prevention and provided naloxone kits; and the number of reports of overdose reversals (administration of naloxone by a trained layperson in the event of an overdose), as well as whether the reports were based on program data or were estimates. The survey also asked about the naloxone formulations currently provided in kits, models for training and providing naloxone kits, funding sources, and any difficulties obtaining naloxone.
To obtain data for a recent full calendar year, organizations providing naloxone kits during calendar year 2013 were asked to provide specific data for that year, including numbers of persons provided naloxone kits, reversals reported, and naloxone vials provided; characteristics of persons who received naloxone kits (e.g., persons who use drugs, friends and family members, service providers); characteristics of persons reporting overdose reversals; and the drugs involved in reported overdose reversals. HRC staff used follow-up e-mails and telephone calls to encourage participation and clarify responses.
Managers from 136 (97.1%) organizations completed the survey, including those from 84 community-based organizations, 18 health care facilities, 10 Veterans Administration health care systems, 18 state or local health departments, and six pharmacies. Half of the responding organizations began operating during January 2013 to June 2014. Respondents provided reports for 644 local opioid overdose prevention sites that provide naloxone kits, located in 30 states and the District of Columbia. Thirty-eight respondents provided consolidated data for multiple local sites providing naloxone kits.
Some organizations estimated responses; for example, one health department estimated the number of laypersons receiving naloxone kits on the basis of the number of kits distributed to local sites. Three state health departments (Massachusetts, New Mexico, and New York) oversee operations of statewide naloxone programs, with 334 local sites.
From 1996, when the first organization began providing naloxone, through June 2014, the 136 responding organizations reported providing training and naloxone kits to 152,283 laypersons. The 109 organizations that collect reports of reversals documented 26,463 overdose reversals.
During 2013, 93 organizations reported distributing or prescribing naloxone to 37,920 laypersons. The 68 (50%) organizations that collect reports of reversals documented 8,032 overdose reversals.
Ninety-three organizations collected information on the characteristics of laypersons who were provided naloxone kits. Laypersons who received naloxone kits were characterized as persons who use drugs (81.6%); friends and family members (11.7%); service providers (3.3%); or unknown (3.4%). Sixty-eight organizations provided information about laypersons who reported administering naloxone, characterizing them as persons who use drugs (82.8%); friends and family members (9.6%); service providers (0.2%); or unknown (7.4%). Forty-two organizations collected information from laypersons about the drugs that appeared to be involved in the reversed overdoses; heroin was involved in 81.6% and prescription opioids in 14.1%.
Various program models were used by organizations to provide naloxone to laypersons, including distribution of naloxone kits by trained nonmedical staff or volunteers under a standing order (44.1%), by medical staff (36.0%), prescriptions written by a medical provider and filled at a pharmacy (28.7%), pharmacists dispensing directly via collaborative practice agreements and other mechanisms (18.8%), and other protocols (14.0%). Thirty-three organizations used more than one model.
During 2013, 90 of the 136 organizations reported distributing 140,053 naloxone vials, including refills. Three respondents whose organizations were operational in 2013 did not report on the number of vials because they furnished prescriptions to be filled at a pharmacy. The remaining 43 organizations indicated that they were not yet providing naloxone kits during 2013. Sixty-nine respondents reported their organization provided only injectable naloxone, 51 provided only intranasal naloxone, and 16 provided both injectable and intranasal naloxone. A total of 111,602 vials of injectable naloxone (21.4% 10 mL and 58.1% 1 mL) and 28,446 vials of intranasal naloxone were provided to laypersons.
Forty organizations reported difficulties maintaining an adequate supply of naloxone, and 73 reported inadequate resources to sustain or expand their organization's efforts to disseminate naloxone kits. Prices of intranasal naloxone more than doubled in the second half of 2014 and Opioid Safety and Naloxone Network members report that cost increases are reducing the quantity of naloxone purchased and provided to laypersons.
Organizations that provide naloxone kits to laypersons have expanded substantially since a similar survey in 2010, reflecting a 183% increase in the number of responding organizations; a 243% increase in the number of local sites providing naloxone; a 187% increase in the number of laypersons provided naloxone kits; a 160% increase in the number of reversals reported; and a 94% increase in states with at least one organization providing naloxone. Half of the responding organizations began operating during January 2013–June 2014. Although early adopters of naloxone kit provision were mainly syringe exchanges, other programs, including substance use treatment facilities, Veterans Administration health care systems, primary care clinics, and pharmacies have started providing naloxone to laypersons.
Providing naloxone kits to laypersons reduces overdose deaths, is safe, and is cost-effective. U.S. and international health organizations recommend providing naloxone kits to laypersons who might witness an opioid overdose; to patients in substance use treatment programs; to persons leaving prison and jail; and as a component of responsible opioid prescribing. Although the number of organizations providing naloxone kits to laypersons is increasing, in 2013, 20 states had no such organization, and nine had less than one layperson per 100,000 population who had received a naloxone kit. Among these 29 states with minimal or no access to naloxone kits for laypersons, 11 had age-adjusted 2013 drug overdose death rates higher than the national median.
Persons who use drugs accounted for 81.6% of laypersons who received naloxone kits; they also performed the majority (82.8%) of reported overdose reversals. A majority (81.6%) of the overdoses that were reversed involved heroin, indicating that organizations are reaching laypersons who witness heroin overdoses. A study of a community-based naloxone program in San Francisco also found that persons who use drugs play a major role in reversing heroin overdoses. Additional interventions are needed to reach persons who may witness prescription opioid analgesic overdoses, which account for nearly twice as many deaths as heroin overdoses.
Organizations providing naloxone kits to laypersons receive many reports of overdose reversals and can reach large numbers of potential overdose bystanders. Comprehensive prevention measures that include teaching laypersons how to respond to overdoses and administer naloxone might help prevent opioid drug overdose deaths. This report suggests that many programs reach persons who witness heroin-related overdoses. Additional methods are needed to provide naloxone kits to persons who might witness prescription opioid analgesic overdoses.
See the CDC Report
See also Medical Law Perspectives, January 2014 Report: Prescription Painkillers: Risks for Patients, Pharmacists, and Physicians
See also Medical Law Perspectives, May 2013 Report: Drugs, Dosage, and Damage: Physician Liability for Prescribing or Administering Medication
See the Medical Law Perspectives October 8, 2014, Blog: Opioid Pain Pill Abusers Switch to Heroin; Heroin Overdose Deaths Double